Gymnastics (Greek gymnastike, from gymnazo - exercise, train) - this is one of the oldest sports that includes competitions in gymnastic apparatus, floor exercises and vaulting. In the modern gymnastics all-around program: for women - exercises on uneven bars of different heights, logs, floor exercises and vaults; for men - exercises on a horse, rings, parallel bars, horizontal bar, floor exercises and vaults.
Gymnastics is part of the Olympic Games program; world and European championships, competitions for the World Cup and other prestigious international tournaments are constantly held. The history of this sport concerns not only athletes, but also millions of spectators - all those who find in it a magnificent sight of beauty, dynamics, strength and dexterity.
The history of gymnastics.
Gymnastic exercises were part of the physical education system in ancient Greece, and served as a means of preparing young men for participation in the Olympic Games.
From the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th century, exercises on gymnastic apparatus and vaulting were used in Western European and Russian physical education systems. In the second half of the 19th century, several countries of Western Europe began to hold competitions in certain types of gymnastic exercises. Since 1896, gymnastics has been included in the program of the Olympic Games, since 1928 women have been participating in the Olympic Games. Since 1903, world championships have been held (until 1913 - once every 2 years, since 1922 - once every 4 years), since 1934 women have been participating in the championships.
In the 1st half of the 20th century, gymnasts from Czechoslovakia, Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Finland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and the USA achieved the greatest success in the Olympic Games and World Championships.
The basics of gymnastics.
Exercises on the bars. There are parallel (husband) and uneven (wives) bars. Women's exercises on the bars include, first of all, revolutions in both directions around the upper and lower poles, as well as various technical elements performed above and below them. Men's exercises on parallel bars combine dynamic (rotation, swing movements, etc.) and static (horizontal stops, hand stands) elements.
Floor exercises (wives and husband) are performed on a special gymnastic carpet. Floor exercises are a combination of individual elements (somersaults, somersaults, twine, handstand, etc.) and their ligaments, different in pace and "mood". The complexity of the program and its individual elements, as well as the purity and confidence of the performance, are evaluated. No less important is the originality of the composition presented and the athlete's artistry - especially among women whose performances are accompanied by musical accompaniment and include individual dance steps, which in many ways resemble exercises from rhythmic gymnastics.
A vault (male and female) is run with an extra support (hence the name of the exercise). The athlete runs on a special track, kicks off the bridge, and then makes an additional push with his hands from the projectile. The height and range of the jump, its complexity, cleanliness of execution and clear landing are estimated.
Exercises on a horse (male), a special projectile with handles, are a combination of swing and rotational movements, as well as hand stands, during which all parts of the projectile must be involved.